angle of incidence

angle of incidence

angle of incidence

Noun 1. angle of inc >incidence angle

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angle of incidence

Origin of angle of inc >First recorded in 1620–30

Words nearby angle of inc >angle of deviation, angle of dip, angle of eccentricity, angle of elevation, angle of friction, angle of incidence , angle of iris, angle of jaw, angle of lag, angle of lead, angle of pitch

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Angle of Inc >

If I had to put money down on a backyard dirt-pit fight between luchadores named Angle of Incidence and Angle of Attack, I would choose the latter every time. Surely, Angle of Attack would be much more dynamic, quick, and difficult to calculate. While adaptable, Angle of Incidence is too easy to read and manipulate. Furthermore, people are far more likely to recognize Angle of Attack due to the fact that Angle of Incidence had an identity crisis at a young age and sometimes goes by “Blade Pitch Angle.” It became confusing and only true luchador followers know that Angle of Incidence and Blade Pitch Angle are one and the same. For these reasons, I’ll put my money on Angle of Attack.

The truth is, this is a pretty poor analogy and I apologize. Angle of attack and angle of incidence are two aerodynamic factors that don’t really work against each other. Both measure an angle of an airfoil but in separate ways. Let’s throw a hook and knock this post out.

ANGLE OF INCIDENCE

The angle of incidence (AOI) measures the angle between the chord line of an airfoil and the point to which it is fixed. In the case of our helicopter, the major AOI is the angle between the pitch of the main rotor blades and the mast. This angle is often called the blade pitch angle, so don’t be confused. We also have an AOI for our tail rotor blades. When we move the collective up and down, the pitch of the main rotor blades changes, thus changing the AOI. Similarly, inputting right or left foot pedal will pitch the tail rotor blades and change their AOI.

Any airfoil has an angle of incidence: wings, elevators, fins, you name it — as long as it creates lift. Let’s take a look at a helicopter rotor blade:

So what’s the deal with these angles? The angle of incidence affects the amount of lift being produced. In the case of a fixed airfoil like an airplane wing, engineers fine tune the angle of the wing before they glue it on so that it will produce the right amount of lift. Imagine if the wing wasn’t tilted: You would send the plane down the runway faster and faster and never create enough lift to leave the ground. Too much tilt and you would pop off the ground before you have enough speed to properly fly.

Helicopters have adjustable rotor blades to create more or less lift. Having the collective fully down means your main rotor blades have zero pitch and your AOI is also zero. When you raise the collective, you bring that rotor pitch up, which creates the blade pitch angle.

The term angle of incidence actually stems from a broader scope of physics. Let’s zoom out. Pretend you are a blooming physicist at the pique of your education. At this point as an eager physicist, you will have learned that rays (think light rays), called incident rays, hit a surface plane at what is called the point of incidence. When an incident ray hits a surface, it is reflected or refracted. In some circumstances dependent on the angle of the ray, it can even be absorbed entirely. In these circumstances, the incident ray is at its critical angle of incidence.

At the point of incidence, we have an imaginary line or vector (vector being a quantity with magnitude and direction) perpendicular to the surface plane. This perpendicular line is called a surface normal or simply anormal. The angle between the incident ray and the normal is the angle of incidence.

When our incident ray is reflected, it bounces off the surface at the normal and travels outward as a newly made reflection ray. The angle formed by the reflection ray and normal is called the angle of reflection. According to the law of reflection, the angle of reflection will be equal to the angle of incidence.

Refracted rays are a slightly different story as the angle of refraction is dependent on the speed and direction of the incident ray. There is also something called a glancing angle, which is the measurement of the angle between the ray (or beam or wave or whatever) and the surface plane. When the ray is close to the surface, it’s easier to measure against the surface than the normal. Thus, we would use the glancing angle.

Now, this is all fun and games but slightly irrelevant unless you’re at a cocktail party with a bunch of physics students and you don’t have anything to contribute to the conversation. If you find yourself in such a situation, just holler, “Angle of incidence!” and the crowd will surely flock to you for a roaring good time. I’m almost sure of it.

I think it’s interesting to relate all of this fancy physics stuff to our helicopter rotor blades. If our angle of incidence is the angle between the pitch of the blade and the rotor mast, then our chord line is the “incidence ray,” the rotor mast is the “surface,” and the imaginary perpendicular line against which the pitch is measured is the “normal.”

ANGLE OF ATTACK

Angle of attack (AOA) is a slightly different story. It is the measurement of the angle between the chord line of the airfoil and the resultant relative wind. Unlike the angle of incidence, the pilot does not have complete control over the angle of attack. It is affected by the movement of both the helicopter and the relative wind and is therefore impossible to accurately calculate in flight. (Not that anyone is calculating their angle of incidence mid-flight either. Who has time or reason for that?)

To picture how a pilot’s input changes the angle of attack, one must think about how the helicopter controls work. First, we have our collective. Raising the collective increases the pitch of the main rotor blades. Of course, this changes the angle of attack and the angle of incidence of the blades. Next, pushing the cyclic in a certain direction will move the whole rotor disk in the given direction. Is this changing the angle of attack? You bet. Here’s the kicker, though: Because the whole disk is tilting, one side will be increasing its angle of attack while the other side is decreasing its angle of attack.

The tail rotor blades have their own angle of attack going on, which is affected by the position of the foot pedals. Additionally the relative wind, which is induced by the movement of the helicopter through the air, is constantly changing. Winds and vortices hit the rotor blades from all kinds of crazy angles. For this reason, it is like Mission Impossible 22 to figure out your AOA in flight.

So why should you care about any of this stuff if you don’t have any upcoming physics cocktail parties? Here’s why: Once you reach the critical angle of attack, your helicopter stalls and you start to roll over like a dead fish. Do you want to know what that feels like? I didn’t think so. Let’s talk about how we get from Calm and Collected Angle of Attack to Critical Angle of Attack.

CRITICAL ANGLE OF ATTACK

As we know, air separates at the leading edge of an airfoil, only to rejoin at the trailing edge. When the pitch of the airfoil increases, the air is separated even further, creating a larger pressure differential around the blade and therefore more lift. If the angle of attack becomes too large, the air will no longer rejoin at the trailing edge. Your rotor blades will suddenly lose air support and stall.

Okay, mom. Skip this next paragraph.

Remember when I said you would be rolling over like a dead fish? That is due to the fact that only one side of the rotor disk is stalling. Because one side is advancing while the other is retreating, the two sides of the rotor disk are experiencing different airspeed velocities. The retreating blade is going to stall first in forward flight, which means in a counterclockwise rotor system (like the R22), the helicopter will roll to the left and aft because that area of the disk is no longer producing lift. Yikes.

I’lll leave a full rundown of airfoil stalls for another post. I think you get the idea for now; keep that angle of attack in check and you’ll be golden.

Angle of incidence and angle of attack will come up quite frequently as I get into more aerodynamics, so keep this post in your back pocket. If you enjoyed it, please share it with a buddy who you think would make an excellent luchador. Feel free to leave any questions, concerns, or positive news in the comments below.

angle of incidence

an·gle of in·ci·dence

an·gle of in·ci·dence

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Difference Between Angle of Inc > September 22, 2015 Posted by Admin

Key Difference – Angle of Incidence vs Angle of Refraction

The key difference between the angle of incidence and angle of refraction is the sequential order of the two angles, made at a media interface by a wave.

Refraction is a property of waves. A wave can have different velocities for different mediums. The change of velocity at a boundary of a medium causes a wave to refract. This article is particularly focused in light rays, for the sake of simplicity.

Definition of Angle of Inc >Angle of incidence is the angle between the normal at the interface and incident ray.

Angle of refraction is defined as the angle between the normal at the interface and refracted ray. Angles can be measured by any unit, but here, degrees are used. Let us first have a glance at laws of refraction.

    Inc >Keep in mind the property of the reversibility of light. If we simply reverse the direction of the light ray by cons />

Formation of Angle of Inc >The difference between incident and refracted ray depends on the fact whether the light ray comes to the interface or leaves the interface. Picture a light ray as a stream of photons. The stream of particles hit the interface making a certain angle with the normal, then sink into the other medium essentially making a different angle with the normal.

The angle of incidence can be varied manually since it is independent of the medium. But the angle of refraction is defined by the refractive indices of the media. More the difference between refractive indices, more the difference between angles.

Location of Angle of Incidence and Angle of Refraction relative to the interface

If a light ray goes from medium1 to medium2, the angle of incidence lies in the medium1 and the angle of refraction lies in the medium2 and vice versa for interchanging of the mediums.

Both of the angles are made with the normal at the interface of mediums. Depending on the relative refractive index, the refracted light ray may make an angle greater than or less than that of inc />

Values of Angle of Inc >Any value between 0 to 90 degrees can be assigned as the angle of incidence, but the refracted ray cannot be taken any value if the light ray comes from the rarer medium. For the entire range of the incident angle, the angle of refraction reaches a maximum value which is exactly the same as the critical angle described next.

Refracting from a denser to rarer medium

The above is not valid for a situation where the light ray comes from a denser medium. When we increase the incident angle gradually, we shall see the angle of refraction also increases rapidly until a certain value of the incident angle is reached. At this critical angle(c) of the incident ray, refracted light ray achieves its maximum value, 90 degrees (refracted ray goes along the interface) and vanishes for a moment. If we try to increase the incident angle further, there we shall see a sudden appearance of a reflected ray in the denser medium, making the same angle according to the laws of reflection. The incident angle at this point is called the critical angle, and there will be no more refraction.

As a summary, one could see, though categorized differently, both these phenomena are just a result of the reversibility of light.

Key difference

The key difference between the angle of incidence and angle of refraction is the sequential order of the two angles, made at a media interface by a wave.

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Calculation of the Solar Angle of Incidence

The solar angle of incidence 0hor on a horizontal surface is a direct function of the sun height yS. This angle is also called the zenith angle dZ:

The calculation of the angle of incidence 0tilt on a tilted surface is more complicated. The surface azimuth angle at describes the deviation from the south. If the surface faces to the west, at is positive. The inclination angle yt describes the surface tilt or slope of the surface. If the surface is horizontal, yt is zero. Figure 2.13 visualizes these angles.

The angle of incidence is the angle between the vector s in the direction of the sun and the normal vector n perpendicular to the surface. The position of the sun has been defined in spherical coordinates and thus must be transformed into Cartesian coordinates with the base vectors north, west and zenith for further calculations. The vectors s and n become:

s = (cosas • cosYS, — sinas • cosYS, sinYS)T n = (-cosat • sinYt, sinat • sinYt, cosYt)T

Both vectors are normalized, and thus the solar angle of incidence on a tilted surface is obtained by calculating the scalar multiplication of these two vectors:

Figure 2.13 Definition of the Solar Angle of Incidence on a Tilted Surface

= arccos(-cosaS • cosyS • cosat • sinyt -sinaS • cosyS • sinat • sinyt + sinyS • cosyt) = arccos) — cosyS • sinyt • cos(aS-at) + sinyS • cosyt)

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angle of incidence

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Synonyms for angle of inc >

the angle that a line makes with a line perpendicular to the surface at the point of inc >

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Why Would You Want To Change Your Angle Of Inc />

Yesterday’s post on the Vought F-8 Crusader brought up an interesting design parameter — the angle of incidence.

The Crusader has a variable incidence wing. At slow speeds, the front of the wing lifts up, increasing the angle of incidence. At cruise speeds and higher, the wing lies flush with the fuselage, reducing the angle of incidence.

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But what is an angle of incidence, anyway? And why is it important?

The Angle Of Incidence

The angle of incidence is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the aircraft (draw a line from the spinner to the tail) and the chord line of the wing (draw a line from the leading edge to the trailing edge).

This is not the same as your angle of attack. Your angle of attack is the angle between your chord line and the relative wind.

Why is this angle important? Usually, you can’t change it. (Well, unless you’re in a Crusader.)

During your takeoff roll, the relative wind is parallel to your runway. The angle of incidence defines your angle of attack until you have enough speed (and tail down force) to lift your nose off. And, the angle of incidence reduces your pitch angle, giving you better visibility during takeoff.

During landing, the angle of incidence gives you the same advantage. The angle of incidence reduces the pitch angle you need to achieve a high angle of attack, giving you better visibility at slower speeds.

Does It Affect Lift In Flight?

No. The angle of attack and your airspeed determine how much lift your wing produces, and the angle of incidence has no effect. In flight, the angle of incidence doesn’t affect the angle between the relative wind and the chord line. It simply changes the angle that the fuselage points — keeping the nose at a lower pitch angle.

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Cosine Law and Surface Inc >Surface incidence is governed by the Lambert cosine law. This states that the relative intensity of radiation or light on a surface is equal to the cosine of the angle of incidence, and that the relative area over which it is distributed is the inverse of this value. This applet provides an interactive and highly visual demonstration of this effect on both horizontal and vertical surfaces. You can interactively drag altitude and azimuth angles to see changes in both the distribution area and relative intensity of an incident energy beam. It is particularly interesting to see these effects simultaneously on both surfaces.

Blog Details
    Dr. Andrew Marsh 01 Feb, 2010
    Computer ProgrammingProcessing

Cosine Law Applet: This models the relationship between incidence angle, distribution area and relative intensity. This is an interactive applet so you can adjust the incidence angles by clicking and dragging them with the left mouse button or using the middle and right buttons to pan or rotate the view.

Description

This applet allows you to interactively adjust the azimuth and altitude of incident energy and see the relative effect on both horizontal and vertical surfaces. To do this, use the azimuth and altitude nodes to interactively drag the direction of the energy beam. You can also adjust these values using the sliders along the left and bottom edge of the applet.

The width and height sliders along the top and right edges allow you to adjust the size and relative shape of the energy beam. However, you will notice that changing these values does not affect the relative intensity or the incidence area. This is because the Cosine Law is the same for all beam shapes and/or incidence locations on a planar surface. On such surfaces, the Lambert cosine law is solely governed by incidence angle.

Fundamental Concepts

Lambert’s cosine law (also known as the cosine emission law) states that the measure of radiant energy from a surface that exhibits Lambertian reflection is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle formed by the measurement point and the surface normal. It follows that irradiance or illuminance falling on a surface varies similarly with the cosine of the incidence angle.

The perceived measurement area orthogonal to the incident flux is significantly reduced at oblique angles, causing energy to be spread out over a wider area than it would if it was falling perpendicular to the surface. Thus, if you consider a fixed surface area, the amount of energy to which it is exposed will reduce significantly the closer the source is to grazing incidence.

Angle of Inc >

The angle of incidence is the angle between a ray that hits a surface and a line that is perpendicular in all directions to that surface at the point of incidence. This perpendicular line is usually called the surface normal.

Grazing Incidence

Grazing incidence is the term used to describe situations where the irradiance or illuminance is travelling almost parallel to the incident surface, meaning that the incidence angle is very close to 90 degrees. As the cosine of 90 degrees is zero, this means that the resulting relative intensity will be very low as the distribution area is very large.

Effects on Solar Radiation

The Lambert cosine law has a significant effect on the solar radiation received in different parts of the world and also on different surfaces of the same building. Radiant energy from the Sun strikes surfaces on the Earth at different angles of incidence. This varies both hourly, as the Sun passes through the sky, and seasonally as its daily average altitude changes — something especially obvious at higher latitudes away from the equator.

At the equator where the Sun passes almost directly overhead, the intensity of light and heat received on horizontal surfaces is usually much greater than on vertical surfaces. This is especially true for those facing directly North and South as the Sun travels from East to West and passes close to the zenith point. At higher latitudes, this begins to change as the Sun is usually much lower in the sky such that vertical equator-facing surfaces receive much more radiation than horizontal surfaces.

Angle of incidence

Angle of incidence
Angle of incidence. The angle formed by the chord line of the wing and a line parallel to the longitudinal axis of the airplane
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Angle of Incidence
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Angle of Incidence
The angle at which an airfoil is normally fixed in relation to the longitudinal axis of an aircraft. []

is the angle between the blade chord line and the plane of rotation of the rotor system. It is a mechanical angle rather than an aerodynamic angle: .

— The angle at which an airfoil is normally fixed in relation to the longitudinal axis of an aircraft.
ANHEDRAL — The downward angle of a wing in relation to a horizontal cross-section line; aka CATHEDRAL. SEE DIHEDRAL.
APPROACH CONTROL SEE RADIO NAVIGATION .

Angle of the wing chord line in relation to the longitudinal axis of the fuselage. This should not be confused with the Angle of Attack.
Articulated Rotor .

is a term which is sometimes confusingly used as being synonymous with wing angle of attack, however the former cannot be altered in flight.

Longitudinal dihedral
Oscillating motions
7.3 Directional stability .

— Angle at which an airfoil surface is normally set in relation to the fore and aft axis of the airframe structure.

ANHEDRAL — Angle which the spanwise axis of an airfoil makes to the fuselage when the wing or tailplane tip is lower than its root attachment point.

).-(a) Lower Plane.-The trailing edge should be brought parallel to the leading edge. This can be done by bringing the rear spar in line with the leading edge. Stand squarely in front of the center of the ma- chine 15 to 20 ft. away.

The second longitudinal mode excited by a symmetric disturbance may sometimes be unstable and consists mainly of a slow sinusoidal motion in which the height and the forward speed of the aircraft vary while the

remains practically constant.

Blade Twist is a characteristic built into the rotor blade so

near the root where blade speed is slower.

[Figure 6-7] Changing the

(pitch) from the hub to the tip to correspond with the speed produces uniform lift throughout the length of the blade.

Extending the flaps increases the wing section’s

.
Extending the flaps effectively increases the washout, since on most planes the inboard sections have flaps while the outboard sections do not.
Extending the flaps increases drag. This is helpful during landing, but unhelpful during climb and cruise.

The angle of attack is not to be confused with the

. This is the angle that is measured between the longitudinal axis, running through the length of the aircraft, and the chord line of the wing.

For this to happen the

of the wing is larger at the root and lower at the wing tips. Some aircraft have a stall fence on top of the wing, others employ a discontinuous leading edge (Kodiak from Quest Aircraft) creating a vortex over the wing at high angles of attack.

The tendency for this reflection is dependent upon the frequency and the

. As the frequency increases, it is found that the amount of refraction decreases until a frequency is reached where the signals pass through the layer and on to the next.

(a) Angle of Attack. (b)

.
top
The Flow of Fluids
The ideal flow of fluid about objects is shown in next figure. Although ideal flow does not exist, it is a helpful in developing an understanding of lift and drag.

twist Progressive change of

of a wing, rotor blade or other aerofoil from root to tip.
Type Certificate Airworthiness licence granted to enable a manufacturer to produce and market a specified type of aircraft (compare C of A).

In the Roundwing, the Pitts hit what many consider to be its peak until the Super Stinker came along in 1994. It’s symmetrical wings are parallel (same

) and use different airfoil sections top and bottom to make the top wing stall first whether inverted or right side up.

This glider, which was basically a kite on top of pole, was about 5 feet (1.5 meters) long, with a fixed wing set at an

of 6 degrees and a cruciform tail that was attached to the fuselage by universal joints. Movable ballast controlled the centre of gravity.

This «pulls» the air around the leading edge, thus preventing the stall up to a much higher

and lift coefficient. The disadvantage of the leading edge slat is that the air accelerated in the slot requires energy which means higher drag.

Pitch control must be able to effectively control the incidence even at the high angles associated with slow flying. That means the horizontal tail must be able to push the tail down in order to lift the nose up and keep the

high for those sustained high angle climbs.

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